The use of interprofessional simulation interventions in medical student education: A scoping review


  • Victoria Langton Royal Adelaide Hospital
  • Dimitra Dounas University of Adelaide
  • Abby Moore University of Adelaide
  • Stephen Bacchi Royal Adelaide Hospital
  • Josephine Thomas Royal Adelaide Hospital University of Adelaide



Interprofessional learning, interprofessional education, medical students, simulation, simulation training


Introduction: Simulation is commonly used by health and education institutions to facilitate interprofessional learning (IPL). The use of simulation in IPL is resource intensive. Evidence of what works, and with whom, is important to inform practice, policymaking and further research. The aim of this scoping review was to summarise the existing literature on IPL involving medical students, where simulation was the teaching modality. This review examined a variety of simulation-based interventions used to teach IPL to medical students and identified key features and outcomes. 

Methods: The databases Pubmed, Medline, EMBASE and PsychINFO were searched using the terms related to medical student and simulation combined with interprofessional. Included articles involved medical students alongside a student or practitioner from at least one other health profession taking part in at least one simulation session. Data extraction was performed by two authors using a standardised form. 

Results: It emerged that simulations of medical emergencies were the most common format to deliver IPL interventions. Most studies evaluated the success of their IPL intervention using the Readiness for Interprofessional Learning Scale (RIPLS). 

Conclusion: All studies were successful in improving student attitudes towards IPL and interprofessional collaboration when these were measured outcomes. Formal team training prior to simulation is effective in improving teamwork skills. IPL interventions with participants from a greater mix of professions have more positive results.


Al-Elq, A. H. (2010). Simulation-based medical teaching and learning. Journal of Family Community Medicine, 17(1), 35–40.

Anderson, G., Hughes, C., Patterson, D., & Costa, J. (2017). Enhancing inter-professional education through low-fidelity simulation. British Journal of Midwifery, 25(1), 52–58.

Appelbaum, N. P., Lockeman, K. S., Orr, S., Huff, T. A., Hogan, C. J., Queen, B. A., & Dow, A. W. (2020). Perceived influence of power distance, psychological safety, and team cohesion on team effectiveness. Journal of Interprofessional Care, 34(1), 20–26.

Atack, L., Parker, K., Rocchi, M., Maher, J., & Dryden, T. (2009). The impact of an online interprofessional course in disaster management competency and attitude towards interprofessional learning. Journal of Interprofessional Care, 23(6), 586–598.

Baker, C., Pulling, C., McGraw, R., Dagnone, J. D., Hopkins-Rosseel, D., & Medves, J. (2008). Simulation in interprofessional education for patient-centred collaborative care. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 64(4), 372–379.

Berg, B. W., Wong, L., & Vincent, D. S. (2010). Technology-enabled interprofessional education for nursing and medical students: A pilot study. Journal of Interprofessional Care, 24(5), 601–604.

Blackhall, L. J., Erickson, J., Brashers, V., Owen, J., & Thomas, S. (2014). Development and validation of a collaborative behaviors objective assessment tool for end-of-life communication. Journal of Palliative Medicine, 17(1), 68–74.

Bottenberg, M. M., DeWitt, J. E., Wall, G. C., Fornoff, A., Stelter, N., Soltis, D., & Eastman, D. K. (2013). Assessment of interprofessional perceptions and attitudes of health professional students in a simulation laboratory setting. Currents in Pharmacy Teaching and Learning, 5(3), 167–174.

Brock, D., Abu-Rish, E., Chiu, C. R., Hammer, D., Wilson, S., Vorvick, L., Blondon, K., Schaad, D., Liner, D., & Zierler, B. (2013). Interprofessional education in team communication: Working together to improve patient safety. BMJ Quality & Safety, 22(5), 414–423.

Brown, C. W., Howard, M., & Morse, J. (2016). The use of trauma interprofessional simulated education (TIPSE) to enhance role awareness in the emergency department setting. Journal of Interprofessional Care, 30(3), 388–390.

Buckley, S., Hensman, M., Thomas, S., Dudley, R., Nevin, G., & Coleman, J. (2012). Developing interprofessional simulation in the undergraduate setting: Experience with five different professional groups. Journal of Interprofessional Care, 26(5), 362–369.

Clay, A. S., Chudgar, S. M., Turner, K. M., Vaughn, J., Knudsen, N. W., Farnan, J. M., Arora, V. M., & Molloy, M. A. (2017). How prepared are medical and nursing students to identify common hazards in the intensive care unit? Annals of the American Thoracic Society, 14(4), 543–549.

Cooke, C., Gormley, G. J., Haughey, S., & Barry, J. (2017). Tracing the prescription journey: A qualitative evaluation of an interprofessional simulation-based learning activity. Advances in Simulation, 2, Article 14.

Cooke, S., Wakefield, A., Chew-Graham, C., & Boggis, C. (2003). Collaborative training in breaking bad news to patients. Journal of Interprofessional Care, 17(3), 307–309.

Dagnone, J. D., McGraw, R. C., Pulling, C. A., & Patteson, A. K. (2008). Interprofessional resuscitation rounds: A teamwork approach to ACLS education. Medical Teacher, 30(2), e49–e54.

Djukic, M., Adams, J., Fulmer, T., Szyld, D., Lee, S., Oh, S. Y., & Triola, M. (2015). E-learning with virtual teammates: A novel approach to interprofessional education. Journal of Interprofessional Care, 29(5), 476–482.

Djukic, M., Fulmer, T., Adams, J. G., Lee, S., & Triola, M. M. (2012). NYU3T: Teaching, technology, teamwork: A model for interprofessional education scalability and sustainability. Nursing Clinics of North America, 47(3), 333–346.

Efstathiou, N., & Walker, W. M. (2014). Interprofessional, simulation-based training in end of life care communication: A pilot study. Journal of Interprofessional Care, 28(1), 68–70.

Ellman, M. S., Schulman-Green, D., Blatt, L., Asher, S., Viveiros, D., Clark, J., & Bia, M. (2012). Using online learning and interactive simulation to teach spiritual and cultural aspects of palliative care to interprofessional students. Journal of Palliative Medicine, 15(11), 1240–1247.

Fewster-Thuente, L. (2014). A contemporary method to teach collaboration to students. Journal of Nursing Education, 53(11), 641–645.

Flentje, M., Mubel, T., Henzel, B., & Jantzen, J.-P. (2016). Simulating a patient's fall as a means to improve routine communication: Joint training for nursing and fifth-year medical students. GMS Journal for Medical Education, 33(2), 1–13.

Freeth, D., Hammick, M., Reeves, S., Koppel, I., & Barr, H. (2005). Effective interprofessional education: Development, delivery and evaluation. Blackwell.

Garbee, D. D., Paige, J., Barrier, K., Kozmenko, V., Kozmenko, L., Zamjahn, J., Bonanno, L., & Cefalu, J. (2013). Interprofessional teamwork among students in simulated codes: A quasi-experimental study. Nursing Education Perspectives, 34(5), 339–344.

Gorantla, S., Bansal, U., Singh, J. V., Dwivedi, A. D., Malhotra, A., & Kumar, A. (2019). Introduction of an undergraduate interprofessional simulation based skills training program in obstetrics and gynaecology in India. Advances in Simulation, 4, Article 6.

Greenstock, L. N., Brooks, P. M., Webb, G. R., & Moran, M. C. (2012). Taking stock of interprofessional learning in Australia. Medical Journal of Australia, 196(11), 707–707.

Haber, J., Hartnett, E., Allen, K., Crowe, R., Adams, J., Bella, A., Riles, T., & Vasilyeva, A. (2017). The impact of oral-systemic health on advancing interprofessional education outcomes. Journal of Dental Education, 81(2), 140–148.

Hegg, R. M., Ivan, K. F., Tone, J., & Morten, A. (2020). Comparison of peer assessment and faculty assessment in an interprofessional simulation-based team training program. Nurse Education in Practice, 42, Article 102666.

Hess, R., Hagemeier, N. E., Blackwelder, R., Rose, D., Ansari, N., & Branham, T. (2016). Teaching communication skills to medical and pharmacy students through a blended learning course. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 80(4), 64.

Hobgood, C., Sherwood, G., Frush, K., Hollar, D., Maynard, L., Foster, B., Sawning, S., Woodyard, C. D., Durham, C., Wright, M., Taekman, J., on behalf of the Interprofessional Patient Safety Education Collaborative. (2010). Teamwork training with nursing and medical students: Does the method matter? Results of an interinstitutional, interdisciplinary collaboration. Quality & Safety in Health Care, 19(6), e25.

Holthaus, V., Sergakis, G., Rohrig, L., Wilcox, J., Thomas, E., McClerking, C., Legg, J., Clutter, J., & Nahikian-Nelms, M. (2015). The impact of interprofessional simulation on dietetic student perception of communication, decision making, roles, and self-efficacy. Topics in Clinical Nutrition, 30(2), 127–142.

Horsley, T. L., Reed, T., Muccino, K., Quinones, D., Siddall, V. J., & McCarthy, J. (2016). Developing a foundation for interprofessional education within nursing and medical curricula. Nurse Education, 41(5), 234–238.

Jakobsen, R. B., Gran, S. F., Grimsmo, B., Arntzen, K., Fosse, E., Frich, J. C., & Hjortdahl, P. (2018). Examining participant perceptions of an interprofessional simulation-based trauma team training for medical and nursing students. Journal of Interprofessional Care, 32(1), 80–88.

Jankouskas, T. S., Haidet, K. K., Hupcey, J. E., Kolanowski, A., & Murray, W. B. (2011). Targeted crisis resource management training improves performance among randomized nursing and medical students. Simulation Healthcare, 6(6), 316–326.

Joyal, K. M., Katz, C., Harder, N., & Dean, H. (2015). Interprofessional education using simulation of an overnight inpatient ward shift. Journal of Interprofessional Care, 29(3), 268–270.

Kearney, A., Adey, T., Bursey, M., Cooze, L., Dillon, C., Barrett, J., King-Jesso, P., & McCarthy, P. (2010). Enhancing patient safety through undergraduate inter-professional health education [Special issue]. Healthcare Quarterly, 13, 88–93.

Ker, J. S., Mole, L., & Bradley, P. (2003). Early introduction to interprofessional learning: A simulated ward environment. Medical Education, 37(3), 248–255.

King, A. E., Conrad, M., & Ahmed, R. A. (2013). Improving collaboration among medical, nursing and respiratory therapy students through interprofessional simulation. Journal of Interprofessional Care, 27(3), 269–271.

Kirkpatrick, D. L. (2006). Seven keys to unlock the four levels of evaluation. Performance Improvement, 45(7), 5–8.

Krumwiede, K. H., Wagner, J. M., Kirk, L. M., Duval, T. M., Dalton, T. O., Daniel, K. M., Huffman, A. S., Adams-Huet, B., & Rubin, C. D. (2019). A team disclosure of error educational activity: Objective outcomes. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 67(6), 1273–1277.

Kumar, A., Gilmour, C., Nestel, D., Aldridge, R., McLelland, G., & Wallace, E. (2014). Can we teach core clinical obstetrics and gynaecology skills using low fidelity simulation in an interprofessional setting? Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 54(6), 589–592.

Kumar, A., Wallace, E. M., East, C., McClelland, G., Hall, H., Leech, M., & Nestel, D. (2017). Interprofessional simulation-based education for medical and midwifery students: A qualitative study. Clinical Simulation in Nursing, 13(5), 217–227.

Kyrkjebo, J. M., Brattebo, G., & Smith-Strom, H. (2006). Improving patient safety by using interprofessional simulation training in health professional education. Journal of Interprofessional Care, 20(5), 507–516.

Lawlis, T. R., Anson, J., & Greenfield, D. (2014). Barriers and enablers that influence sustainable interprofessional education: A literature review. Journal of Interprofessional Care, 28(4), 305–310.

Lee, W. J., Clark, L., Wortmann, K., Taylor, L. A., & Pock, A. R. (2019). Interprofessional healthcare student training in the care of sexual assault patients utilizing standardized patient methodology. Simulation in Healthcare, 14(1), 10–17.

Leithead, J., III, Garbee, D. D., Yu, Q., Rusnak, V. V., Kiselov, V. J., Zhu, L., & Paige, J. T. (2019). Examining interprofessional learning perceptions among students in a simulation-based operating room team training experience. Journal of Interprofessional Care, 33(1), 26–31.

Liaw, S. Y., Ooi, S. W., Rusli, K. D. B., Lau, T. C., Tam, W. W. S., & Chua, W. L. (2020). Nurse–physician communication team training in virtual reality versus live simulations: Randomized controlled trial on team communication and teamwork attitudes. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 22(4), e17279.

Liaw, S. Y., Siau, C., Zhou, W. T., & Lau, T. C. (2014). Interprofessional simulation-based education program: A promising approach for changing stereotypes and improving attitudes toward nurse–physician collaboration. Applied Nursing Research, 27(4), 258–260.

Lippe, M., Davis, A., Threadgill, H., & Ricamato, A. (2020). Development of a new measure to assess primary palliative care perceived competence. Nurse Educator, 45(2), 106–110.

Lockeman, K. S., Appelbaum, N. P., Dow, A. W., Orr, S., Huff, T. A., Hogan, C. J., & Queen, B. A. (2017). The effect of an interprofessional simulation-based education program on perceptions and stereotypes of nursing and medical students: A quasi-experimental study. Nurse Education Today, 58, 32–37.

Luctkar-Flude, M., Baker, C., Medves, J., Tsai, E., Rivard, L., Goyer, M.-C., & Krause, A. (2013). Evaluating an interprofessional pediatrics educational module using simulation. Clinical Simulation in Nursing, 9(5), e163–e169.

Luctkar-Flude, M., Baker, C., Pulling, C., McGraw, R., Dagnone, D., Medves, J., & Turner-Kelly, C. (2010). Evaluating an undergraduate interprofessional simulation-based educational module: Communication, teamwork, and confidence performing cardiac resuscitation skills. Advances in Medical Education and Practice, 1, 59–66.

McIlwaine, L., Scarlett, V., Venters, A., & Ker, J. S. (2007). The different levels of learning about dying and death: An evaluation of a personal, professional and interprofessional learning journey. Medical Teacher, 29(6), e151–e159.

Miller, A., Morton, S., Sloan, P., & Hashim, Z. (2013). Can a single brief intervention improve participants' readiness for interprofessional learning? Journal of Interprofessional Care, 27(6), 532–533.

Miller, J. L., Rambeck, J. H., & Snyder, A. (2014). Improving emergency preparedness system readiness through simulation and interprofessional education. Public Health Reports, 129(6, Suppl. 4), 129–135.

Motycka, C., Egelund, E. F., Gannon, J., Genuardi, F., Gautam, S., Stittsworth, S., Young, A., & Simon, L. (2018). Using interprofessional medication management simulations to impact student attitudes toward teamwork to prevent medication errors. Currents in Pharmacy Teaching and Learning, 10(7), 982–989.

Nagelkerk, J., Peterson, T., Pawl, B. L., Teman, S., Anyangu, A. C., Mlynarczyk, S., & Baer, L. J. (2014). Patient safety culture transformation in a children's hospital: An interprofessional approach. Journal of Interprofessional Care, 28(4), 358–364.

Nagraj, S., Harrison, J., Hill, L., Bowker, L., & Lindqvist, S. (2018). Promoting collaboration in emergency medicine. The Clinical Teacher, 15(6), 500–505.

Nathan, M., & Lee, N. (2013). Cultural diversity, innovation, and entrepreneurship: Firm-level evidence from London. Economic Geography, 89(4), 367–394.

New, S. N., Huff, D. C., Hutchison, L. C., Bilbruck, T. J., Ragsdale, P. S., Jennings, J. E., & Greenfield, M. (2015). Integrating collaborative interprofessional simulation into pre-licensure health care programs. Nursing Education Perspectives, 36(6), 396–397.

Nikendei, C., Huhn, D., Pittius, G., Trost, Y., Bugaj, T. J., Koechel, A., & Schulz, J.-H. (2016). Students' perceptions on an interprofessional ward round training: A qualitative pilot study. GMS Journal for Medical Education, 33(2), Document 4.

Nystrom, S., Dahlberg, J., Edelbring, S., Hult, H., & Dahlgren, M. A. (2016). Debriefing practices in interprofessional simulation with students: A sociomaterial perspective. BMC Medical Education, 16, Article 148.

Paige, J. T., Garbee, D. D., Kozmenko, V., Yu, Q., Kozmenko, L., Yang, T., Bonanno, & Swartz, W. (2014). Getting a head start: High-fidelity, simulation-based operating room team training of interprofessional students. Journal of the American College of Surgeons, 218(1), 140–149.

Parsell, G., & Bligh, J. (2002). The development of a questionnaire to assess the readiness of health care students for interprofessional learning (RIPLS). Medical Education, 33(2), 95–100.

Partecke, M., Balzer, C., Finkenzeller, I., Reppenhagen, C., Hess, U., Hahnenkamp, K., & Meissner, K. (2016). Interprofessional learning: Development and implementation of joint medical emergency team trainings for medical and nursing students at Universitätsmedizin Greifswald. GMS Journal for Medical Education, 33(2), Document 32.

Pitout, H., Human, A., Treadwell, I., & Sobantu, N. A. (2014). Healthcare students’ perceptions of a simulated interprofessional consultation in an outpatient clinic. Innovations in Education and Teaching International, 53(3), 338–348.

Poore, J. A., Cullen, D. L., & Schaar, G. L. (2014). Simulation-based interprofessional education guided by Kolb's experiential learning theory. Clinical Simulation in Nursing, 10(5), e241–e247.

Ragucci, K. R. (2014). Student evaluation of a clinical assessment course and related interprofessional simulation exercises. Currents in Pharmacy Teaching and Learning, 6(5), 692–698.

Ragucci, K. R., Kern, D. H., & Shrader, S. P. (2016). Evaluation of interprofessional team disclosure of a medical error to a simulated patient. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 80(8), Artilcle 138.

Reed, T., Horsley, T. L., Muccino, K., Quinones, D., Siddall, V. J., McCarthy, J., & Adams, W. (2017). Simulation using teamSTEPPS to promote interprofessional education and collaborative practice. Nurse Educator, 42(3), e1–e5.

Reese, C. E., Jeffries, P. R., & Engum, S. A. (2010). Learning together: Using simulations to develop nursing and medical student collaboration. Nursing Education Perspectives, 31(1), 33–37.

Reeves, S. A., Denault, D., Huntington, J. T., Ogrinc, G., Southard, D. R., & Vebell, R. (2017). Learning to overcome hierarchical pressures to achieve safer patient care: An interprofessional simulation for nursing, medical, and physician assistant students. Nurse Educator, 42(5, Suppl. 1), S27–S31.

Reime, M. H., Johnsgaard, T., Kvam, F. I., Aarflot, M., Breivik, M., Engeberg, J. M., & Brattebo, G. (2016). Simulated settings: Powerful arenas for learning patient safety practices and facilitating transference to clinical practice. A mixed method study. Nurse Education in Practice, 21, 75–82.

Reime, M. H., Johnsgaard, T., Kvam, F. I., Aarflot, M., Engeberg, J. M., Breivik, M., & Brattebo, G. (2017). Learning by viewing versus learning by doing: A comparative study of observer and participant experiences during an interprofessional simulation training. Journal of Interprofessional Care, 31(1), 51–58.

Reising, D. L., Carr, D. E., Shea, R. A., & King, J. M. (2011). Comparison of communication outcomes in traditional versus simulation strategies in nursing and medical students. Nursing Education Perspectives, 32(5), 323–327.

Reising, D. L., Carr, D. E., Gindling, S., Barnes, R., Garletts, D., & Ozdogan, Z. (2017). Team communication influence on procedure performance: Findings from interprofessional simulations with nursing and medical students. Nursing Education Perspectives, 38(5), 275–276.

Robertson, B., Kaplan, B., Atallah, H., Higgins, M., Lewitt, M. J., & Ander, D. S. (2010). The use of simulation and a modified teamSTEPPS curriculum for medical and nursing student team training. Simulation in Healthcare, 5(6), 332–337.

Rochman, M. F., Aebersold, M., Tschannen, D., & Cambridge, B. (2012). Interprofessional simulation on nurse interruptions. Journal of Nursing Care Quality, 27(3), 277–281.

Rodehorst, T. K., Wilhelm, S. L., & Jensen, L. (2005). Use of interdisciplinary simulation to understand perceptions of team members' roles. Journal of Professional Nursing, 21(3), 159–166.

Salam, T., Saylor, J. L., & Cowperthwait, A. L. (2015). Attitudes of nurse and physician trainees towards an interprofessional simulated education experience on pain assessment and management. Journal of Interprofessional Care, 29(3), 276–278.

Saylor, J., Vernoony, S., Selekman, J., & Cowperthwait, A. (2016). Interprofessional education using a palliative care simulation. Nurse Educator, 41(3), 125–129.

Scherer, Y. K., Myers, J., O'Connor, T. D., & Haskins, M. (2013). Interprofessional simulation to foster collaboration between nursing and medical students. Clinical Simulation in Nursing, 9(11), e497–e505.

Scott, A., Dawson, R. M., Mitchell, S., & Catledge, C. (2020). Simulation-based interprofessional education in a rural setting: The development and evaluation of a "remote-in" telehealth scenario. Nursing Education Perspectives, 41(3), 187–189.

Sehgal, M., Nassetta, K. R., Bamdas, J. A. M., & Sourial, M. (2019). First do no "pharm": Educating medical and pharmacy students on the essentials of medication management. Currents in Pharmacy Teaching and Learning, 11(9), 920–927.

Shanahan, C. A., & Lewis, J. (2015). Perceptions of interprofessional clinical simulation among medical and nursing students: A pilot study. Journal of Interprofessional Care, 29(5), 504–506.

Shaw-Battista, J., Belew, C., Anderson, D., & van Schaik, S. (2015). Successes and challenges of interprofessional physiologic birth and obstetric emergency simulations in a nurse-midwifery education program. Journal of Midwifery & Women's Health, 60(6), 735–743.

Shrader, S. S., Kern, D., Zoller, J., & Blue, A. (2013). Interprofessional teamwork skills as predictors of clinical outcomes in a simulated healthcare setting. Journal of Allied Health, 42(1), e1–e6.

Shrader, S. S., McRae, L., King, W. M., & Kern, D. (2011). A simulated interprofessional rounding experience in a clincal assessment course. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 75(4), 8.

Sigalet, E., Donnon, T., Cheng, A., Cooke, S., Robinson, T., Bissett, W., & Grant, V. (2013). Development of a team performance scale to assess undergraduate health professionals. Academic Medicine, 88(7), 989–996.

Sigalet, E., Donnon, T., & Grant, V. (2012). Undergraduate students' perceptions of and attitudes toward a simulation-based interprofessional curriculum: The KidSIM ATTITUDES questionnaire. Simulation in Healthcare, 7(6), 353–358.

Sigalet, E. L., Donnon, T. L., & Grant, V. (2015). Insight into team competence in medical, nursing and respiratory therapy students. Journal of Interprofessional Care, 29(1), 62–67.

Smithburger, P. L., Kane-Gill, S. L., Kloet, M. A., Lohr, B., & Seybert, A. L. (2013). Avanzando la educacion interprofesional mediante el uso de simuladores de pacientes humanos de alta fidelidad [Advancing interprofessional education through the use of high fidelity human patient simulators]. Pharmacy Practice, 11(2), 61–65.

Stewart, M., Kennedy, N., & Cuene-Grandidier, H. (2010). Undergraduate interprofessional education using high-fidelity paediatric simulation. The Clinical Teacher, 7(2), 90–96.

Tankimovich, M., Swails, J., & Hamburger, M. (2020). Nurse practitioner and medical students' perceptions of teamwork before and after a standardized patient pilot simulation. Nursing Education Perspectives, 41(3), 171–173.

Thistlethwaite, J., Kumar, K., Moran, M., Saunders, R., & Carr, S. (2015). An exploratory review of pre-qualification interprofessional education evaluations. Journal of Interprofessional Care, 29(4), 292–297.

Tofil, N. M., Morris, J. L., Peterson, D. T., Watts, P., Epps, C., Harrington, K. F., Leon, K., Pierce, C., & White, M. L. (2014). Interprofessional simulation training improves knowledge and teamwork in nursing and medical students during internal medicine clerkship. Journal of Hospital Medicine, 9(3), 189–192.

van Schaik, S. M., Regehr, G., Eva, K. W., Irby, D. M., & O'Sullivan, P. S. (2016). Perceptions of peer-to-peer interprofessional feedback among students in the health professions. Academic Medicine, 91(6), 807–812.

Wagner, J., Liston, B., & Miller, J. (2011). Developing interprofessional communication skills. Teaching and Learning in Nursing, 6(3), 97–101.

Wakefield, A., Cooke, S., & Boggis, C. (2003). Learning together: Use of simulated patients with nursing and medical students for breaking bad news. International Journal of Palliative Nursing, 9(1), 32–38.

Wakefield, A., Cocksedge, S., & Boggis, C. (2006). Breaking bad news: Qualitative evaluation of an interprofessional learning opportunity. Medical Teacher, 28(1), 53–58.

Wamsley, M., Staves, J., Kroon, L., Topp, K., Hossaini, M., Newlin, B., Lindsay, C., O'Brien, B. (2012). The impact of an interprofessional standardized patient exercise on attitudes toward working in interprofessional teams. Journal of Interprofessional Care, 26(1), 28–35.

Wang, R., Shi, N., Bai, J., Zheng, Y., & Zhao, Y. (2015). Implementation and evaluation of an interprofessional simulation-based education program for undergraduate nursing students in operating room nursing education: A randomized controlled trial. BMC Medical Education, 15, Article 115.

Wen, A., Wong, L., Ma, C., Arndt, R., Katz, A. R., Richardson, K., Deautsch, M., & Masaki, K. (2019). An interprofessional team simulation exercise about a complex geriatric patient. Gerontology & Geriatrics Education, 40(1), 16–29.

West, C., Veronin, M., Landry, K., Kurz, T., Watzak, B., Quiram, B., & Graham, L. (2015). Tools to investigate how interprofessional education activities link to competencies. Medical Education Online, 20(1), Article 28627.

Whelan, J. J., Spencer, J. F., & Rooney, K. (2008). A "RIPPER"project: Advancing rural inter-professional health education at the University of Tasmania. Rural and Remote Health, 8(1017), 1–9.

World Health Organization (WHO). (2010). Framework for action on interprofessional education and collaborative practice.


Additional Files



How to Cite

Langton, V., Dounas, D., Moore, A., Bacchi, S., & Thomas, J. (2021). The use of interprofessional simulation interventions in medical student education: A scoping review. Focus on Health Professional Education: A Multi-Professional Journal, 22(1), 33–67.