Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription Access

Development of professional identity and professional socialisation in allied health students: A scoping review

Robynne Snell, Susan Fyfe, Georgina Fyfe, Diana Blackwood, Catherine Itsiopoulos

Abstract


Introduction: Reports on the development of professional identity and socialisation in the healthcare professions are mainly from medicine and nursing, although the body of work from other health professions is increasing. This scoping review investigates what is known about the development of professional identity by students from nine allied health professions and what they experience when developing a professional identity. 

Methods: Reviewers independently searched five databases: CINAHL Plus, Informit, Ovid Medline, Proquest and Scopus, using either terms from text mining six key articles known to the authors or from the keywords: allied health occupation, student, professional identity, professional socialisation, professionalisation and professional role. 

Results: Ninety-six articles met inclusion criteria from 3 662 records. Over half the articles were published after 2010 and reported studies using qualitative methods with small numbers of participants. Study participants were mainly from the United States of America, the United Kingdom and Australia, and their professions were social work, occupational therapy and physiotherapy. There was no consensus for terminology of professional identity, and related terms were used interchangeably. Theoretical frameworks varied, with situated learning theory and application of standards or frameworks to meet accreditation or professional organisation requirements being most common. Students reported that early introduction to their profession was beneficial to developing a professional identity.

Conclusions: While interest in the development of professional identity has increased, findings indicate that further research, including longitudinal studies, would deepen our understanding of the process of socialisation at different stages and similarities between the professions. This is needed for curriculum development, graduate employability strategies and in order to best prepare students for their future practice.

 

 

 


Keywords


scoping review; professional identity; professional socialisation; professionalisation; allied health occupations; allied health students

Full Text:

PDF

References


Adams, K., Hean, S., Sturgis, P., & Macleod Clark, J. (2006). Investigating the factors influencing professional identity of first-year health and social care students. Learning in Health and Social Care, 5(2), 55–68. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1473

2006.00119.x

Ajjawi, R., & Higgs, J. (2008). Learning to reason: A journey of professional socialisation. Advances in Health Sciences Education: Theory and practice, 13(2), 133–150. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10459-006-9032-4

Allied Health Professions Australia. (2017). What is allied health? https://ahpa.com. au/what-is-allied-health/

Anderson, D. K., & Irwin, K. E. (2013). Self-assessment of professionalism in physical therapy education. Work, 44(3), 275–281. https://doi.org/10.3233/ WOR-121504

Arksey, H., & O'Malley, L. (2005). Scoping studies: Towards a methodological framework. International Journal of Social Research Methodology, 8(1), 19–32. https://doi.org/10.1080/1364557032000119616

Ashby, S. E., Adler, J., & Herbert, L. (2016). An exploratory international study into occupational therapy students' perceptions of professional identity. Australian Occupational Therapy Journal, 63(4), 233–243. https://doi.org/10.1111/1440- 1630.12271

The Association of Schools of Allied Health Professions. (2015). What is allied health? http://www.asahp.org/what-is/

Australian Allied Health Leadership Forum. (2018). What is allied health? https:// aahlf.com/what-is-allied-health/

Barretti, M. A. (2007). Teachers and field instructors as student role models: A neglected dimension in social work education. Journal of Teaching in Social Work, 27(3), 215–239. https://doi.org/10.1300/J067v27n03_14

Bartlett, D. J., Lucy, S. D., Bisbee, L., & Conti-Becker, A. (2009). Understanding the professional socialization of Canadian physical therapy students: A qualitative investigation. Physiotherapy Canada, 61(1), 15–25. https://doi.org/10.3138/ physio.61.1.15

Bennett, D., Richardson, S., & MacKinnon, P. (2016). Enacting strategies for graduate employability: How universities can best support students to develop generic skills: Final report 2016 (Part A). Australian Government, Office for Learning and Teaching, Department of Education and Training. https://melbourne-cshe.unimelb.edu. au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0011/1874774/SP13-3258_Curtin_Bennett_Graduate- Employability_Final-Report_Part-A_20163.pdf

Binyamin, G. (2018). Growing from dilemmas: Developing a professional identity through collaborative reflections on relational dilemmas. Advances in Health Sciences Education, 23, 43–60. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10459-017-9773-2

Black, L. L., Jensen, G. M., Mostrom, E., Perkins, J., Ritzline, P. D., Hayward, L., & Blackmer, B. (2010). The first year of practice: An investigation of the professional learning and development of promising novice physical therapists. Physical Therapy, 90(12), 1758–1773. https://doi.org/10.2522/ptj.20100078

Boehm, J., Tanner, B., Lowrie, D., Bonassi, M., Brown, N., Thomas, Y., & Cordier, R. (2015). Exploring emerging occupational therapy identity and the development of graduate attributes among occupational therapy students. British Journal of Occupational Therapy, 78(8), 499–507. https://doi. org/10.1177/0308022614562585

Bonsaksen, T., Grana, K. E., Celo, C., Ellingham, B., & Myraunet, I. (2013). A practice placement design facilitating occupational therapy students' learning. The Journal of Mental Health Training, Education and Practice, 8(4), 169–10. https:// doi.org/10.1108/JMHTEP-08-2012-0028

Brown, D. L., Ferrill, M. J., Hinton, A. B., & Shek, A. (2001). Self-directed professional development: The pursuit of affective learning. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 65(3), 240–246. https://www.scopus.com/inward/ record.uri?eid=2-s2.0-0141451471&partnerID=40&md5=de7cab0de6a27ae26a2 3136553d5c888

Burford, B., Morrow, G., Rothwell, C., Carter, M., & Illing, J. (2014). Professionalism education should reflect reality: Findings from three health professions. Medical Education, 48(4), 361–374. https://doi.org/10.1111/ medu.12368

Canavan, M. (2009). Professional identity formation and voluntary sector social work: Messages from an evaluation of a "flexible learning" programme in Northern Ireland. Journal of Practice Teaching and Learning, 9(3), 47–71. https:// doi.org/10.1921/ 146066910X541638

Clarke, C., Martin, M., Sadlo, G., & de-Visser, R. (2014). The development of an authentic professional identity on role-emerging placements. British Journal of Occupational Therapy, 77(5), 222–229. https://doi.org/10.4276/03080221 4X13990455043368

Clarke, M. (2017). Rethinking graduate employability: The role of capital, individual attributes and context. Studies in Higher Education, 1–15. https://doi.org/10.1080/ 03075079.2017.1294152

Clouder, L. (2003). Becoming professional: Exploring the complexities of professional socialization in health and social care. Learning in Health & Social Care, 2(4), 213–222. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1473-6861.2003.00052.x

Collins, M., Harrison, D., Mason, R., & Lowden, A. (2011). Innovation and creativity: Exploring human occupation and professional development in student education. British Journal of Occupational Therapy, 74(6), 304–308. https://doi.org /10.4276/030802211X13074383958020

Crandell, C. E., Wiegand, M. R., & Brosky, J. A., Jr. (2013). Examining the role of service-learning on development of professionalism in doctor of physical therapy students: A case report. Journal of Allied Health, 42(1), e25–e32.

Cruess, R. L., Cruess, S. R., Boudreau, J. D., Snell, L., & Steinert, Y. (2014). Reframing medical education to support professional identity formation. Academic Medicine, 89(11), 1446–1451. https://doi.org/10.1097/ ACM.0000000000000427

Dahlgren, M., Richardson, B., & Sjostrom, B. (2004). Professions as communities of practice. In J. Higgs, B. Richardson, & Dahlgren, M. (Eds.), Developing practice knowledge for health professionals (pp. 71–88). Butterworth Heinemann.

Daniels, J., & Brooker, J. (2014). Student identity development in higher education: Implications for graduate attributes and work-readiness. Educational Research, 56(1), 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1080/00131881.2013.874157

Daudt, H. M. L., van Mossel, C., & Scott, S. J. (2013). Enhancing the scoping study methodology: A large, inter-professional team experience with Arksey and O'Malley's framework. BMC Medical Research Methodology, 13(48). https://doi. org/10.1186/1471-2288-13-48

Davis, J. (2006). The importance of the community of practice in identity development. Internet Journal of Allied Health Sciences & Practice, 4(3), 1–8. https://nsuworks.nova.edu/ijahsp/vol4/iss3/5/

Davis, J. (2008). Occupational therapy students' metaphors for helping. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 62(2), 242–250. https://doi.org/10.5014/ ajot.62.2.242

Demo, D., Fry, D., Devine, N., & Butler, A. (2015). A call for action: Advocating for increased funding for the allied health professions. Journal of Allied Health, 44(1), 57–62. https://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/asahp/ jah/2015/00000044/00000001/art00010#expand/collapse

du Toit, D. (1995). A sociological analysis of the extent and influence of professional socialization on the development of a nursing identity among nursing students at two universities in Brisbane, Australia. Joumal of Advanced Nursing, 21(1), 164– 171. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2648.1995.21010164.x

Frenk, J., Chen, L., Bhutta, Z., Cohen, J., Crisp, N., Evans, T., Fineberg, H., Garcia, P., Ke, Y., Kelley, P., Kistnasamy, B., Meleis, A., Naylor, D., Pablos-Mendez, A., Reddy, S., Scrimshaw, S., Sepulveda, J., Serwadda, D., & Zurayk, H. (2010). Health professionals for a new century: Transforming education to strengthen health systems in an interdependent world. The Lancet, 376(9756), 1923–1958. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(10)61854-5

Furze, J., Black, L., Peck, K., & Jensen, G. M. (2011). Student perceptions of a community engagement experience: Exploration of reflections on social responsibility and professional formation. Physiotherapy Theory & Practice, 27(6), 411–421. https://doi.org/10.3109/09593985.2010.516479

Gazzola, N., De Stefano, J., Audet, C., & Theriault, A. (2011). Professional identity among counselling psychology doctoral students: A qualitative investigation. Counselling Psychology Quarterly, 24(4), 257–275. https://doi.org/10.1080/095150 70.2011.630572

Gould, N. (1993). Cognitive change and learning from practice: A longitudinal study of social work students. Social Work Education, 12(1), 77–87. https://doi. org/10.1080/02615479311220071

Grace, S., & Trede, F. (2013). Developing professionalism in physiotherapy and dietetics students in professional entry courses. Studies in Higher Education, 38(6), 793–806. https://doi.org/10.1080/03075079.2011.603410

Greenfield, B., Bridges, P., Phillips, T., Adams, E., Bullock, D., Davis, K., Nelson, C., & Wood, B. (2015). Reflective narratives by physical therapist students on their early clinical experiences: A deductive and inductive approach. Journal of Physical Therapy Education, 29(2), 21–31. https://doi.org/10.1097/ JTE.0000000000000005

Grimmer, K., Lizarondo, L., Kumar, S., Bell, E., Buist, M., & Weinstein, P. (2014). An evidence-based framework to measure quality of allied health care. Health Research Policy and Systems, 12, Article 10. https://doi.org/10.1186/1478-4505-12- 10

Hall, P. (2005). Interprofessional teamwork: Professional cultures as barriers. Journal of Interprofessional Care, 19(S1), 188–196. https://doi. org/10.1080/13561820500081745

Hantman, S., & Ben-Oz, M. (2014). There are no shortcuts: Trusting the social work training process. Journal of Social Work, 14(5), 491–505. https://doi. org/10.1177/1468017313478351

Hayward, L. M., & Li, L. (2014). Promoting and assessing cultural competence, professional identity, and advocacy in Doctor of Physical Therapy (DPT) degree students within a community of practice. Journal of Physical Therapy Education, 28(1), 23–36. https://insights.ovid.com/physical-therapy-education/ jopte/2014/10/000/promoting-assessing-cultural-competence/5/00001416

Hean, S., & Dickson, C. (2005). The contact hypothesis: An exploration of its further potential in interprofessional education. Journal of Interprofessional Care, 5(19), 480–491. https://doi.org/10.1080/13561820500215202

Holland, K., Middleton, L., & Uys, L. (2012). The sources of professional confidence in occupational therapy students. Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, 42(3), 19–25. https://doi.org/10.1097/00001416-201301000-00013

Holmboe, S. E., & Batalden, S. P. (2015). Achieving the desired transformation: Thoughts on next steps for outcomes-based medical education. Academic Medicine, 90(9), 1215–1223. https://doi.org/10.1097/ACM.0000000000000779

Howkins, E. J., & Ewens, A. (1999). How students experience professional socialisation. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 35(1), 41–49. https://doi. org/10.1016/S0020-7489(98)00055-8

Ikiugu, M., & Rosso, H. (2003). Facilitating professional identify in occupational therapy students. Occupational Therapy International, 10(3), 206–225. https://doi. org/10.1002/oti.186

Jackson, D. (2017). Developing pre-professional identity in undergraduates through work-integrated learning. Higher Education, 74(5), 833–853. https://doi. org/10.1007/s10734-016-0080-2

Jee, S. D., Schafheutle, E. I., & Noyce, P. R. (2017). Using longitudinal mixed methods to study the development of professional behaviours during pharmacy work-based training. Health and Social Care in the Community, 25(3), 975–986. https://doi.org/10.1111/hsc.12397

Johnson, J. L., & Chauvin, S. (2016). Professional identity formation in an advanced pharmacy practice experience emphasizing self-authorship. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 80(10), Article 172. https://doi.org/10.1111/hsc.12397

Jollands, M., Clarke, B., Grando, D., Hamilton, M., Smith, J., Xenos, S., Brodie, M., & Burton, A. (2015). Developing graduate employability through partnerships with industry and professional associations. Australian Government, Office for Learning and Teaching, Department of Education and Training. https://ltr.edu.au/resources/ SP13_3256_Jollands_Report_2015.pdf

Joynes, V. C. T. (2018). Defining and understanding the relationship between professional identity and interprofessional responsibility: Implications for educating health and social care students. Advances in Health Sciences Education, 23(1), 133–149. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10459-017-9778-x

Khalili, H., Orchard, C., Spence Laschinger, H. K., & Farah, R. (2013). An interprofessional socialization framework for developing an interprofessional identity among health professions students. Journal of Interprofessional Care, 27(6), 448–453. https://doi.org/10.3109/13561820.2013.804042

Knightbridge, L. (2014). Experiential learning on an alternative practice education placement: Student reflections on entry-level competency, personal growth, and future practice. British Journal of Occupational Therapy, 77(9), 438–446. https:// doi.org/10.4276/030802214X14098207540956

Lahav, O., Daniely, N., & Yalon-Chamovitz, S. (2017). Interpersonal social responsibility model of service learning: A longitudinal study. Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, 25(1), 61–69. https://doi.org/10.1080/11038128.2017.1 335775

Lerkiatbundit, S. (2006). Factor structure and cross-validation of a professionalism scale in pharmacy students. Journal of Pharmacy Teaching, 12(2), 25–49. https:// doi.org/10.1300/J060v12n02_03

Levac, D., Colquhoun, H., & Brien, K. K. (2010). Scoping studies: Advancing the methodology. Implementation Science, 5, Article 69. https://doi.org/10.1186/1748-5908-5-69

Levy, D., Shlomo, S. B., & Itzhaky, H. (2014). The "building blocks" of professional identity among social work graduates. Social Work Education, 33(6), 744–759. https://doi.org/10.1080/02615479.2014.883600

Li, L. C., Grimshaw, J. M., Nielsen, C., Judd, M., Coyte, P. C., & Graham, I. D. (2009). Use of communities of practice in business and health care sectors: A systematic review. Implementation Science, 4, Article 27. https://doi.org/10.1186/1748-5908-4-27

Liamputtong, P. (2013). Making sense of qualitative data: The analysis process. In P. Liamputtong (Ed.), Qualitative Research Methods (4th ed.) (pp. 241–263). Oxford University Press.

Liberati, A., Altman, D. G., Tetzlaff, J., Mulrow, C., Gøtzsche, P. C., Ioannidis, J. P. A., Clarke, M., Devereaux, P. J., Kleijnen, J., & Moher, D. (2009). The PRISMA statement for reporting systematic reviews and meta-analyses of studies that evaluate health care interventions: Explanation and elaboration. Annals of Internal Medicine, 151(4), W65–W94. https://doi.org/10.7326/0003-4819 151-4-200908180-00136

Lindquist, I., Engardt, M., Garnham, L., Poland, F., & Richardson, B. (2006a). Development pathways in learning to be a physiotherapist. Physiotherapy Research International, 11(3), 129 139. https://doi.org/10.1002/pri.332

Lindquist, I., Engardt, M., Garnham, L., Poland, F., & Richardson, B. (2006b). Physiotherapy students' professional identity on the edge of working life. Medical Teacher, 28(3), 270–276. https://doi.org/10.1080/01421590600605272

Lindsey, E. W. (2005). Study abroad and values development in social work students. Journal of Social Work Education, 41(2), 229–249. https://doi.org/10.5175/ JSWE.2005.200303110

Loseke, D. R., & Cahill, S. E. (1986). Actors in search of a character: Student social workers' quest for professional identity. Symbolic Interaction, 9(2), 245–258. https://doi.org/10.1525/si.1986.9.2.245

MacLellan, D., Lordly, D., & Gingras, J. (2011). Professional socialization in dietetics: A review of the literature. Canadian Journal of Dietetic Practice and Research, 72(1), 37–42. https://doi.org/10.3148/72.1.2011.37

Mason, J. (2013). Review of Australian Government Health Workforce Programs. https:// www1.health.gov.au/internet/main/publishing.nsf/Content/review australian-government-health-workforce-programs

McAllister, L., & Nagarajan, S. (2015). Accreditation requirements in allied health education: Strengths, weaknesses and missed opportunities. Journal of Teaching and Learning for Graduate Employability, 6(1), 2–24. https://doi.org/10.21153/jtlge2015vol6no1art570

Miller, S. E. (2010). A conceptual framework for the professional socialization of social workers. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, 20(7), 924–938. https://doi.org/10.1080/10911351003751934

Miller, S. E. (2013). Professional socialization: A bridge between the explicit and implicit curricula. Journal of Social Work Education, 49(3), 368–386. https://doi.org/10.1080/10437797.2013.796773

Mylrea, M. F., Gupta, T. S., & Glass, B. D. (2015). Professionalization in pharmacy education as a matter of identity. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 79(9), Article 142. https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?eid=2-s2.0- 84954428149&partnerID=40&md5=5f4e063eb116939fc31705c01c55a88

National Library of Medicine. (2018). Medicine subject headings (MeSH). https://meshb.nlm.nih.gov/search

Noble, C., Coombes, I., Nissen, L., Shaw, P. N., & Clavarino, A. (2015). Making the transition from pharmacy student to pharmacist: Australian interns' perceptions of professional identity formation. International Journal of Pharmacy Practice, 23(4), 292–304. https://doi.org/10.1111/ijpp.12155

Noble, C., Coombes, I., Shaw, P. N., Nissen, L. M., & Clavarino, A. (2014). Becoming a pharmacist: The role of curriculum in professional identity formation. Pharmacy Practice, 12(1), 380. https://pharmacypractice.org/journal/index.php/pp/article/view/380

Noble, C., O’Brien, M., Coombes, I., Shaw, P. N., Nissen, L., & Clavarino, A. (2014). Becoming a pharmacist: Students’ perceptions of their curricular experience and professional identity formation. Currents in Pharmacy Teaching and Learning, 6(3), 327–339. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cptl.2014.02.010

O'Brien, K. K., Colquhoun, H., Levac, D., Baxter, L., Tricco, A. C., Straus, S., Wickerson, L., Nayar, A., Moher, D., & O'Malley, L. (2016). Advancing scoping study methodology: A web-based survey and consultation of perceptions on terminology, definition and methodological steps. BMC Health Services Research, 16, Article 305. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12913-016-1579-z

O'Loughlin, K., Dal Bello-Haas, V., & Milidonis, M. (2005). The professional development plan: Cultivation of professional development and lifelong learning in professional (entry-level) physical therapist students. Journal of Physical Therapy Education, 19(2), 42–51. https://doi.org/10.1097/00001416-200507000-00006

Oandasan, I., & Reeves, S. (2005). Key elements for interprofessional education. Part 1: The learner, the educator and the learning context. Journal of Interprofessional Care, 19, (Suppl. 1), 21–38. https://doi.org/10.1080/13561820500083550

Osteen, P. J. (2011). Motivations, values, and conflict resolution: Students integration of personal and professional identities. Journal of Social Work Education, 47(3), 423–444. https://doi.org/10.5175/JSWE.2011.200900131

Ouzzani, M., Hammady, H., Fedorowicz, Z., & Elmagarmid, A. (2016). Rayyan: A web and mobile app for systematic reviews. Systematic Reviews, 5, Article 210. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13643-016-0384-4

Paterson, J., Higgs, J., Wilcox, S., & Villeneuve, M. (2002). Clinical reasoning and self-directed learning: Key dimensions in professional education and professional socialisation. Focus on Health Professional Education: A Multi-disciplinary Journal,

(2), 5–21.

Pullen Sansfaçon, A., & Crête, J. (2016). Identity development among social workers, from training to practice: Results from a three-year qualitative longitudinal study. Social Work Education, 35(7), 767–779. https://doi.org/0.1080/02615479.2016.1211097

Ranmuthugala, G., Plumb, J., Cunningham, F., Georgiou, A., Westbrook, J., & Braithwaite, J. (2011). How and why are communities of practice established in the healthcare sector? A systematic review of the literature. BMC Health Service Research, 11, Article 273. https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6963-11-273

Richardson, B., Lindquist, I., Engardt, M., & Aitman, C. (2002). Professional socialization: Students' expectations of being a physiotherapist. Medical Teacher, 24(6), 622–627. https://doi.org/10.1080/0142159021000063943

Robinson, A. J., Tanchuk, C. J., & Sullivan, T. M. (2012). Professionalism and occupational therapy: An exploration of faculty and students' perspectives. Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy, 79(5), 275–284. https://doi.org/10.2182/cjot.2012.79.5.3

Rutter, P. M., & Duncan, G. (2010). Can professionalism be measured? Evidence from the pharmacy literature. Pharmacy Practice, 8(1), 18–28. https://doi.org/10.4321/S188636552010000100002

Roche, A., & Coote, S. (2008). Focus group study of student physiotherapists' perceptions of reflection. Medical Education, 42(11), 1064–1070. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2923.2008.03178.x

Santasier, A. M., & Plack, M. M. (2007). Assessing professional behaviors using qualitative data analysis. Journal of Physical Therapy Education, 21(3), 29–39.

https://doi.org/10.1097/00001416-200710000-00005

Scholar, H., McLaughlin, H., McCaughan, S., & Coleman, A. (2014). Learning to be a social worker in a non-traditional placement: Critical reflections on social work, professional identity and social work education in England. Social Work Education,

(8), 998–1016. https://doi.org/10.1080/02615479.2014.926320

Shlomo, S. B., Levy, D., & Itzhaky, H. (2012). Development of professional identity among social work students: Contributing factors. Clinical Supervisor, 31(2), 240–255. https://doi.org/10.1080/07325223.2013.733305

Shuval, J. T., & Adler, I. (1979). Health occupations in Israel: Comparative patterns of change during socialization. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 20(1), 77–89. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2136482

Skøien, A. K., Vågstøl, U., & Raaheim, A. (2009). Learning physiotherapy in clinical practice: Student interaction in a professional context. Physiotherapy Theory & Practice, 25(4), 268–278. https://doi.org/10.1080/09593980902782298

Smith, R. A., & Pilling, S. (2007). Allied health graduate program: Supporting the transition from student to professional in an interdisciplinary program. Journal of Interprofessional Care, 21(3), 265–276. https://doi.org/10.1080/13561820701259116

Swanepoel, E., Tweedie, J., & Maher, J. (2016). Building dietetic student confidence and professional identity through participation in a university health clinic. Nutrition & Dietetics, 73(3), 229–234. https://doi.org/10.1111/1747-0080.12268

Taylor, K. M. G., & Harding, G. (2007). The pharmacy degree: The student experience of professional training. Pharmacy Education, 7(1), 83–88. https://doi. org/10.1080/15602210601149383

Trede, F., Macklin, R., & Bridges, D. (2012). Professional identity development: A review of the higher education literature. Studies in Higher Education, 37(3), 365–384. https://doi.org/10.1080/03075079.2010.521237

Tricco, A. C., Cardoso, R., Thomas, S. M., Motiwala, S., Sullivan, S., Kealey, M. R., Hemmelgarn, B., Ouimet, M., Hillmer, M. P., Perrier, L., Shepperd, S., & Straus, S. E. (2016). Barriers and facilitators to uptake of systematic reviews by policy makers and health care managers: A scoping review. Implementation Science, 11, Article 4. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13012-016-0370-1

Tryssenaar, J., & Perkins, J. (2001). From student to therapist: Exploring the first year of practice. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 55(1), 19–27. https://doi.org10.5014/ajot.55.1.19

Tsoumas, L. J., & Pelletier, D. (2007). Integrating professional behavior development across a professional allied health curriculum. Journal of Allied Health, 36(4), e313-e325. https://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/asahp/jah/2007/00000036/00000004/art00013

Turnbull, C., Grimmer-Somers, K., Kumar, S., May, E., Law, D., & Ashworth, E. (2009). Allied, scientific and complementary health professionals: A new model for Australian allied health. Australian Health Review, 33(1), 27–37. https://doi.org/10.1097/00001416-201301000-00013

Turpin, M. J., Rodger, S., & Hall, A. R. (2012). Occupational therapy students' perceptions of occupational therapy. Australian Occupational Therapy Journal, 59(5), 367–374. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1440-1630.2011.00988.x

Whitcombe, S. W. (2013). Problem-based learning students' perceptions of knowledge and professional identity: Occupational therapists as "knowers". British Journal of Occupational Therapy, 76(1), 37–42. https://doi.org/10.4276/030802213X13576469254739

Wiles, F. (2013). "Not easily put into a box": Constructing professional identity. Social Work Education, 32(7), 854–866. https://doi.org/10.1080/02615479.2012.705273

Wilkes, M., Cassel, C., & Klau, M. (2018). If we keep doing what we’re doing we’ll keep getting what we’re getting: A need to rethink "academic" medicine. Medical Teacher, 40(4), 364–371. https://doi.org/10.1080/0142159X.2017.1417580

Wise, H. H., & Yuen, K. (2013). Effect of community-based service learning on professionalism in student physical therapists. Journal of Physical Therapy Education, 27(2), 58–64. https://doi.org/10.1097/00001416-201301000-00013

World Health Organisation (WHO). (1988). Learning together to work together for health: Report of a WHO study group on multiprofessional education for health personnel: The team approach (Technical Report Series 769:1–72). http://who.int/iris/handle/10665/37411.

World Health Organisation (WHO). (2010). Framework for action on interprofessional education and collaborative practice (Reference No: WHO/HRH/HPN/10.3). http://www.who.int/hrh/resources/framework_action/en/




DOI: https://doi.org/10.11157/fohpe.v21i1.322

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.