Importance of workplace knowledge and graduate resilience
Keywords:allied health, nursing education, organisational change, organisational culture, organisational structure, professional burnout, professional education, professional power, psychological resilience
Background: Universities strive to improve healthcare by educating future healthcare professionals. This strategy assumes graduates will be able to effectively implement new practices and act as change agents within their professions. However, graduates are likely to encounter numerous barriers to change.
Aim: To identify graduate attributes and educational opportunities that may increase Australian healthcare professionals’ capacity to be change agents.
Method: Iterative thematic qualitative analysis of interviews with 64 healthcare professionals and educators.
Results: Healthcare graduates face numerous barriers to implementing change within their professional contexts. Interviewees reasoned that by explicitly discussing coping strategies and common barriers to change, graduates will be better prepared to implement novel practices and aspects of professionalism. Curricula could include mindfulness, reflective practice, self-management, professional burn-out, workplace cultures, organisational structures, dominant professional paradigms and common professional practice. The importance of such curricula is discussed in the context of healthcare education for natural and social sustainability.
Conclusions: A fundamental goal of tertiary healthcare degrees is to improve future professional practice through the education of students. Designing curricula to enhance students’ capacity to act as change agents would assist this endeavour. Informed by their professional experiences, interviewees asserted that resilience and workplace knowledge are key graduate attributes that will enhance graduates’ capacity to implement change within the healthcare sector.
Keywords: allied health, nursing education, organisational change, organisational culture, organisational structure, professional burnout, professional education, professional power, psychological resilience.
Bosma, H. (2006). Socio-economic differences in health: Are control beliefs fundamental mediators? In J. Siegrist & M. Marmot (Eds.), Social inequalities in health: New evidence and policy implications (pp. 153–166). Norfolk, UK: Oxford University Press.
Cho, J., Spence Laschinger, H. K.,& Wong, C. (2006). Workplace empowerment, work engagement, and organizational commitment of new graduate nurses. Nursing Leadership, 19(3), 43–60.
Cochrane, L. J., Olson, C. A., Murray, S., Dupuis, M., Tooman, T., & Hayes, S. (2007). Gaps between knowing and doing: Understanding and assessing the barriers to optimal health care. Journal of Continuing Education in the Health Professions, 27(2), 94–102.
Dunphy, J. L. (2013a). Contextualising education for natural and social sustainability for Australian healthcare degrees. Focus on Health Professional Education, 15(1), 4–18.
Dunphy, J. L. (2013b). Enhancing the Australian healthcare sector’s responsiveness to environmental sustainability issues: Suggestions from Australian healthcare professionals. Australian Health Review, 37(2), 158–165.
Dobkin, P. L., & Hutchinson, T. A. (2013). Teaching mindfulness in medical school: Where are we now and where are we going? Medical Education, 47, 768–779.
Fleuren, M., Wiefferink, K., & Paulussen, T. (2004). Determinants of innovation within health care organizations. International Journal for Quality in Health Care, 16(2), 107–123.
Frenk, J., Chen, L., Bhutta, Z. A., Cohen, J., Crisp, N., Evans, T.,. . . Zurayk, H. (2010). Health professionals for a new century: Transforming education to strengthen health systems in an interdependent world. Lancet, 376, 1923–1958.
Gomez, A., Balsari, S., Nusbaum, J., Heerboth, A., & Lemery, J. (2013). Perspective: Environment, biodiversity, and the education of the physician of the future. Academic Medicine, 88( 2), 168–172.
Gupta, S., Paterson, M. L., Lysaght, R. M., & von Zweck, C. M. (2012). Experiences of burnout and coping strategies utilized by occupational therapists. The Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy, 79(2), 86–95.
Hassed, C., de Lisle, S., Sullivan, G., & Pier, C. (2009). Enhancing the health of medical students: Outcomes of an integrated mindfulness and lifestyle program. Advances in Health Sciences Education, 14(3), 387–389.
Health Workforce Australia. (2011).
National health workforce innovation and reform strategic framework for action 2011–2015. Retrieved from https://www.hwa.gov.au/ sites/uploads/hwa-framework- background-paper-201110.pdf
Hoge, M. A., Huey, L. Y., & O’Connell, M. J. (2004). Best practices in behavioural health workforce education and training. Administration and Policy in Mental Health, 32(2), 91–106.
Irving, J. A., Dobkin, P. L., & Park, J. (2009).
Cultivating mindfulness in health care professionals: A review of empirical studies of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR). Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice, 15, 61–66.
Keng, S-L., Smoski, M. J., & Robins, C. J. (2011). Effects of mindfulness on psychological health: A review of empirical studies. Clinical Psychology Review, 31, 1041–1056.
Kenny, A., & Duckett, S. (2004). A question of place: Medical power in rural Australia. Social Science and Medicine, 58, 1059–1073.
Kristenson, M. (2006). Socio-economic position and health: The role of coping. In J. Siegrist & M. Marmot (Eds.), Social inequalities in health: New evidence and policy implications (pp. 127–152). Norfolk, UK: Oxford University Press.
Kuper, A., & D’Eon, M. (2011). Rethinking the basis of medical knowledge. Medical Education, 45, 36–43.
Manske, J. (2010, May 9). First do no harm: The role of sustainability in the education of health professionals. The Journal of Sustainability Education. Retreived from http:// www.jsedimensions.org/wordpress/ content/first-do-no-harm-the-role- of-sustainability-in-the-education- of-health professionals_2010_05/
Melbourne Academic Mindfulness Interest Group. (2006). Mindfulness- based psychotherapies: A review of conceptual foundations, empirical evidence and practical considerations. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 40, 285–294.
Nancarrow, S. A., & Borthwick, A. M. (2005). Dynamic professional boundaries in the healthcare workforce. Sociology of Health and Illness, 27(7), 897–919.
Occupational Therapy Australia. (2010). Australian Minimum Competency Standards for New Graduate Occupational Therapists (ACSOT) 2010. Retrieved from http://www.otaus.com.au/ sitebuilder/aboutus/knowledge/ asset/files/16/australian_minimum_competency_standards_for_new_ grad_occupational_therapists.pdf
Palmer, G., & Short, S. (Eds.). (2010).
Health care and public policy: An Australian analysis (4th ed.). South Yarra, Australia: Palgrave Macmillan.
Penrol, J., Bray Preston, D., Cain, R. E., & Starks, M. T. (2003). A discussion of chain referral as a method of sampling hard-to-reach populations. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 14(2), 100–107.
Sabin, J. E., & Moffic, H. S. (2011). Ethical foundation of professionalism. In D. Bhugra & A. Malik (Eds.),
Professionalism in mental healthcare: Experts, expertise and expectations (pp. 140–151). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Satterfield, J. M., Mitteness, L. S., Tervalon, M., & Adler, N. (2004). Integrating the social and behavioral sciences in an undergraduate medical curriculum: The UCSF essential core. Academic Medicine, 79(1), 6–15.
Shanafelt, T. D. (2009). Enhancing meaning in work: A prescription for preventing physician burnout and promoting patient-centered care. The Journal of the American Medical Association, 302(12), 1338–1340.
Shephard, K. (2010). Higher education’s role in education
for sustainability. Australian Universities’ Review, 52(1), 13–22.
Sinclair, A. (2013). How does mindfulness improve leadership
and what impact could it have one Australian workplaces? Retrieved from http://searleburke.com/storage/Improvmindfulimpleadim pactAustworkplacesIMILIW.pdf
Speech Pathology Australia. (2011).
Competency-based occupational standards for speech pathologists: Entry level. Retrieved from http://www. speechpathologyaustralia.org.au/library/Core_Assoc_Doc/CBOS_ for_Speech_Pathologists_2011.pdf
Stallman, H. M. (2011). Embedding resilience within the tertiary curriculum: A feasibility study. Higher Education Research & Development, 30(2), 121–133.
Struber, J. C. (2004). Recruiting and retaining allied health professionals in rural Australia: Why is it so difficult? The Internet Journal of Allied Health Sciences and Practice, 2(2), 1–8. Retrieved from http://ijahsp.nova.edu/articles/ Vol2num2/pdf/Struber.pdf
US Department of Health and Human Services. (2006). The rationale for diversity in the health professions: A review of the evidence. Retrieved from http://bhpr.hrsa. gov/healthworkforce/reports/ diversityreviewevidence.pdf
Williams, A., Harris, M., Daffurn, K., Powell Davies, G., Pascoe, S., & Zwar, N. (2007). Sustaining chronic disease management in primary care: Lessons from a demonstration project. Australian Journal of Primary Health, 13(2), 121–128.
Williams, B., Onsman, A., & Brown, T. (2009). From stretcher-bearer to paramedic: The Australian paramedics’ move towards professionalization. Journal of Emergency Primary Health Care, 7(4), Article 990346.
How to Cite
On acceptance for publication in FoHPE the copyright of the manuscript is signed over to ANZAHPE, the publisher of FoHPE.