Curriculum mapping for health professions education: a typology
Keywords:curriculum, maps, information management, educational technology, education, learning, teaching, organization and administration, health professions, professional
Introduction: Across higher education, curriculum mapping has attracted great interest, partly driven by the need to map graduate competencies to learning and assessment for quality assurance and accreditation. Other drivers have included the need to: a) provide tools for curriculum design and renewal, b) improve communication amongst teachers and curriculum developers and c) support learning by informing students about the scope and sequence of their programs. Those embarking on curriculum mapping have sought clarification about what elements of the curriculum should be mapped, how to develop their own map or whether they should adopt externally available products. During our combined experience of mapping six different medical programs over the course of 15 years, we have frequently sought answers to these questions. However, due to the many and varying types of curriculum maps and curriculum-mapping processes that are described in the literature, answers have not been readily forthcoming.
Methods: We conducted a comprehensive review of the higher education—including health professions—literature to develop a four-dimensional typology for curriculum maps, which details features related to their purpose, product, process and display. The typology was validated by testing the parameters against six curriculum maps from medical schools around Australia.
Results: Using a synthesis of 265 higher education publications, we created a structured framework and common language around the four dimensions of curriculum mapping.
Discussion: The typology can be used by health professions educators to make key decisions about the many curriculum map options available.
Al-Eyd, G., Achike, F., Agarwal, M., Atamna, H., Atapattu, D. N., Castro, L., Estrada, J., Ettarh, R., Hassan, S., Lakhan, S. E., Nausheen, F., Seki, T., Stegeman, M., Suskind, R., Velji, A., Yakub, M., & Tenore, A. (2018). Curriculum mapping as a tool to facilitate curriculum development: A new school of medicine experience. BMC Medical Education, 18(1), 185. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12909- 018-1289-9
Archambault, S. G., & Masunaga, J. (2015). Curriculum mapping as a strategic planning tool. Journal of Library Administration, 55(6), 503–519. http://doi.org/1 0.1080/01930826.2015.1054770
Azzam, A. (2013). As technology and generations in medical education change, what remains is the intersection between educator, learners, assessment and context. International Review of Psychiatry, 25(3), 347–356. https://doi.org/10.3109/09540 261.2013.787048
Baecher, L. (2012). Integrating clinical experiences in a TESOL teacher education program: Curriculum mapping as process. TESOL Journal, 3(4), 537–551. https:// doi.org/10.1002/tesj.34
Balzer, F., Bietenbeck, A., Spies, C., Dittmar, M., Lehmann, L., Sugiharto, F., & Ahlers, O. (2015). How we avoid patient shortage with an integrated analysis of learning objectives and clinical data during development of undergraduate medical curricula. Medical Teacher, 37(6), 533–537. https://doi.org/10.3109/0142159X.2014.955844
Balzer, F., Hautz, W. E., Spies, C., Bietenbeck, A., Dittmar, M., Sugiharto, F., Lehmann, L., Eisenmann, D., Bubser, F., Stieg, M., Hanfler, S., Georg, W., Tekian, A., & Ahlers, O. (2016). Development and alignment of undergraduate medical curricula in a web-based, dynamic Learning Opportunities, Objectives and Outcome Platform (LOOOP). Medical Teacher, 38(4), 369–377. https://doi.org/10.3109/0142159X.2015.1035054
Britten, N., Wallar, L. E., McEwen, S. A., & Papadopoulos, A. (2014). Using core competencies to build an evaluative framework: Outcome assessment of the University of Guelph Master of Public Health program. BMC Medical Education, 14(1), 158. https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6920-14-158
Britton, M., Letassy, N., Medina, M. S., & Er, N. (2008). A curriculum review and mapping process supported by an electronic database system. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 72(5). https://doi.org/10.5688/aj720599
Bruinsma, M., & Jansen, E. P. W. A. (2007). Curriculum mapping: Integrating multiple perspectives on the curriculum. Curriculum and Teaching, 22(1), 25–45. https://doi.org/10.7459/ct/22.1.03
Buchanan, H., Webb, K. K., Houk, A. H., & Tingelstad, C. (2015). Curriculum mapping in academic libraries. New Review of Academic Librarianship, 21(1), 94–111. https://doi.org/10.1080/13614533.2014.1001413
Canning, C. A., Loe, A., Cockett, K. J., Gagnon, P., & Zary, N. (2017). Data driven quality improvement of health professions education: Design and development of CLUE–An interactive curriculum data visualization tool. Studies in Health Technology and Informatics, 235, 171–175. https://doi.org/10.3233/978-1-61499- 753-5-171
Collins, E., Britnell, S., Ditzel, L., & Honey, M. (2017). Using curriculum mapping to develop undergraduate nursing informatics: A New Zealand study. International Journal of Innovative Research in Medical Science, 2(11), 1551–1556. https://hdl.handle.net/2292/38526
Dassel, K., Eaton, J., & Felsted, K. (2018). Navigating the future of gerontology education: Curriculum mapping to the AGHE competencies. Gerontology and Geriatrics Education, 40(1), 132–138. https://doi.org/10.1080/02701960.2018.1500908
Decker, M., Calhoun, J. G., Sinioris, M. E., & Wainio, J. A. (2006). Competency integration in health management education: A resource series for program directors and faculty—Guidebook 1: Curriculum mapping, analysis, and planning. https://www.yumpu.com/en/document/read/38760992/curriculum-mapping-analysisand- planning-national-center-for-curriculum
Denny, J. C., Smithers, J. D., Armstrong, B., & Spickard, A. (2005). Brief report: "Where do we teach what?". Journal of General Internal Medicine, 20(10), 943–946. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1525-1497.2005.0203.x
Denny, J. C., Smithers, J. D., Miller, R. A., & Spickard, A., III. (2003). “Understanding” medical school curriculum content using KnowledgeMap. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association, 10(4), 351–362. https://doi.org/10.1197/jamia.M1176
Dexter, J., Koshland, G., Waer, A., & Anderson, D. (2012). Mapping a curriculum database to the USMLE Step 1 content outline. Medical Teacher, 34(10), e666–e675. https://doi.org/10.3109/0142159X.2012.687477
Dintzner, M. R., Nemec, E. C., II, Tanzer, K., & Welch, B. (2015). Using radar plots for curricular mapping to visualize assessment in a new doctor of pharmacy program. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 79(8). https://www.ajpe.org/doi/full/10.5688/ajpe798121
Dintzner, M. R., Nemec, E. C., & Tanzer, K. (2016). Use of radar plots for curricular mapping: Defining cape-2013-compatible conceptual regions in a radar-plotted curriculum map. Currents in Pharmacy Teaching and Learning, 8(2), 220–225. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cptl.2015.12.011
Ellaway, R. H., Albright, S., Smothers, V., Cameron, T., & Willett, T. (2014). Curriculum inventory: Modeling, sharing and comparing medical education programs. Medical Teacher, 36(3), 208–215. https://doi.org/10.3109/0142159X.2014.874552
Ellaway, R. H., Pusic, M. V., Galbraith, R. M., & Cameron, T. (2014). Developing the role of big data and analytics in health professional education. Medical Teacher, 36(3), 216–222. https://doi.org/10.3109/0142159X.2014.874553
English, F. W. (1978). Quality control in curriculum development (Report). American Association of School Administrators. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED172416)
English, F. W. (1980). Curriculum mapping. Educational Leadership, 37(7), 558–559.
English, F. W. (2010). Deciding what to teach and test: Developing, aligning, and leading the curriculum (3rd ed.). Corwin.
Figueroa, J. L., Birch, D. A., Rasar King, L., & Cottrell, R. R. (2015). CEPH accreditation of stand-alone baccalaureate programs: A preliminary mapping exercise. Health Promotion Practice, 16(1), 115–121. https://doi.org/10.1177/1524839914535778
Fraser, K., & Thomas, T. (2013). Challenges of assuring the development of graduate attributes in a bachelor of arts. Higher Education Research and Development, 32(4), 545–560. https://doi.org/10.1080/07294360.2012.704594
Fritze, O., Lammerding-Koeppel, M., Boeker, M., Narciss, E., Wosnik, A., Zipfel, S., & Griewatz, J. (2018). Boosting competence-orientation in undergraduate medical education: A web-based tool linking curricular mapping and visual analytics. Medical Teacher, 41(4), 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1080/014215 9x.2018.1487047
Gluga, R., Kay, J., & Lever, T. (2013). Foundations for modeling university curricula in terms of multiple learning goal sets. IEEE Transactions on Learning Technologies, 6(1), 25–37. https://doi.org/10.1109/TLT.2012.17
Gluga, R., Kay, J., Lister, R., & Lever, T. (2012). A unified model for embedding learning standards into university curricula for effective accreditation and quality assurance. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the 2012 Australasian Association for Engineering Education (AAEE) Conference, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. https://aaee.net.au/wp-content/uploads/2018/10/AAEE2012-Gluga_Kay_Lister_ et_al Embedding_learning_standards_into_curricula_for_accreditation_and_ QA.pdf
Harden, R. M. (2001). AMEE Guide No. 21: Curriculum mapping: A tool for transparent and authentic teaching and learning. Medical Teacher, 23(2), 123–137. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/01421590120036547
Hatfield, A. J., & Bangert, M. P. (2005). Implementation of the clinical encounters tracking system at the Indiana University School of Medicine. Medical Reference Services Quarterly, 24(4), 41–58. https://doi.org/10.1300/J115v24n04_03
Hege, I., & Fischer, M. (2012). Mapping a medical curriculum using a learning objectives database: Lessons learned at the University of Munich. Bio-Algorithms and Med-Systems, 8(3), 307–314. https://doi.org/10.2478/bams-2012-0020
Hege, I., Nowak, D., Kolb, S., Fischer, M. R., & Radon, K. (2010). Developing and analysing a curriculum map in occupational and environmental medicine. BMC Medical Education, 10. https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6920-10-60
Inzana, K. D. (2017). Curriculum mapping. In J. L. Hodgson & J. M. Pelzer (Eds.), Veterinary medical education: A practical guide (pp. 36–42). Wiley-Blackwell.
Jacobs, H. H. (1997). Mapping the big picture: Integrating curriculum and assessment K–12. Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development (ASCD).
Jacobs, H. H. (2000). Upgrading the K–12 journey through curriculum mapping: A technology tool for classroom teachers, media specialists, and administrators. Knowledge Quest, 29(2), 25–29.
Jacobs, H. H. (Ed.). (2004). Getting results with curriculum mapping. Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development (ASCD).
Jacobs, J., Salas, A. A., Cameron, T., Naguwa, G., & Kasuya, R. (2005). Implementing an online curriculum management database in a problem-based learning curriculum. Academic Medicine, 80(9), 840–846. https://doi. org/10.1097/00001888-200509000-00011
Joyner, H. S. (2016). Curriculum mapping: A method to assess and refine undergraduate degree programs. Journal of Food Science Education, 15(3), 83–100. https://doi.org/10.1111/15414329.12086
Keijsers, C. J. P. W., De Wit, J. E., Tichelaar, J., Brouwers, J. R. B. J., De Wildt, D. J., De Vries, P. G. M., & Jansen, P. A. F. (2015). Education on prescribing for older patients in the Netherlands: A curriculum mapping. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 71(5), 603–609. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00228-015-1830-2
Kelley, K. A., McAuley, J. W., Wallace, L. J., & Frank, S. G. (2008). Curricular mapping: Process and product. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 72(5). https://www.ajpe.org/doi/full/10.5688/aj7205100
Kertesz, J. (2015). U-Map: Beyond curriculum mapping. Advances in Scholarship of Teaching & Learning, 2(1), 16–34.
Kies, S. M. (2010). Curriculum mapping: Knowing where you are going and how you are going to get there. Medical Science Educator, 20(2), 86–97. http://www.iamse.org/mse-article/curriculum-mapping-knowing-where-you-are-going andhow-
Knewstubb, B., & Ruth, A. (2015). Gestalt and figure-ground: Reframing graduate attribute conversations between educational developers and academics. International Journal for Academic Development, 20(1), 4–17. https://doi.org/10.1080/1360144X.2014.946931
Komenda, M., Schwarz, D., Švancara, J., Vaitsis, C., Zary, N., & Dušek, L. (2015). Practical use of medical terminology in curriculum mapping. Computers in Biology and Medicine, 63, 74–82. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compbiomed.2015.05.006
Komenda, M., Schwarz, D., Vaitsis, C., Zary, N., Štěrba, J., & Dušek, L. (2015). OPTIMED platform: Curriculum harmonisation system for medical and healthcare education. In R. Cornet, L. Stoicu-Tivadar, R. Cornet, C. L. Parra Calderon, S. K. Andersen, A. Horbst, & M. Hercigonja-Szekeres (Eds.), Studies in health technology and informatics (Vol. 210): Digital Healthcare Empowering Europeans (pp. 511–515). IOS Press. https://doi.org/10.3233/978-1-61499-512-8-511
Komenda, M., Víta, M., Vaitsis, C., Schwarz, D., Pokorná, A., Zary, N., & Dušek, L. (2015). Curriculum mapping with academic analytics in medical and healthcare education. PloS One, 10(12), e0143748. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0143748
Langlois, S. (2016). Mapping current health professional curricula: Identifying common topics for an integrated interprofessional education curriculum. Journal of Interprofessional Education and Practice, 5, 7–9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.xjep.2016.08.002
Lawson, R., Taylor, T., French, E., Fallshaw, E., Hall, C., Kinash, S., & Summers, J. (2015). Hunting and gathering: New imperatives in mapping and collecting student learning data to assure quality outcomes. Higher Education Research and Development, 34(3), 581–595. http://doi.org/10.1080/07294360.2014.911249
Lawson, R., Taylor, T., Herbert, J., Fallshaw, E., French, E., Hall, C., Kinash, S., & Summers, J. (2013). Hunters and gatherers: Strategies for curriculum mapping and data collection for assuring learning (SP10–1862). Final report 2013. https:// ro.uow.edu.au/hgreport/1
Lee, M. Y., Albright, S. A., Alkasab, T., Damassa, D. A., Wang, P. J., & Eaton, E. K. (2003). Tufts Health Sciences database: Lessons, issues and opportunities. Academic Medicine, 78(3), 254–264. https://doi.org/10.1097/00001888- 200303000-00003
MacNeil, C., & Hand, T. (2014). Examining occupational therapy education through faculty engagement in curriculum mapping and pedagogical reflection. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 68(Suppl. 2), S12–S21. https://doi.org/10.5014/ ajot.2014.012286
Madsen, W., & Bell, T. (2012). Using health promotion competencies for curriculum development in higher education. Global Health Promotion, 19(1), 43–49. https:// doi.org/10.1177/1757975911428818
Malone, D. T., Short, J. L., Naidu, S., White, P. J., & Kirkpatrick, C. M. (2015). Mapping of the Australian qualifications framework standards onto an undergraduate bachelor of pharmacy course. Pharmacy Education, 15(1), 261–269.
Matveev, A. G., Veltri, N. F., Zapatero, E. G., & Cuevas, N. M. (2010, August). Curriculum mapping: A conceptual framework and practical illustration. Paper presented at the Sixteenth Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS), Lima, Peru.
Mazurat, R., & Schonwetter, D. J. (2008). Electronic curriculum mapping: Supporting competency-based dental education. Journal Canadian Dental Association, 74(10), 886–889.
McGrath, C., Comfort, M. B., Luo, Y., Samaranayake, L. P., & Clark, C. D. (2006). Application of an interactive computer program to manage a problem-based dental curriculum. Journal of Dental Education, 7(4), 387–397.
Narayanasamy, A., Jurgens, F., Narayanasamy, M., & Guo, P. (2013). Diversity project: Mapping of diversity teaching and learning in nurse education curriculum. Journal of Further and Higher Education, 37(4), 536–551. https://doi. org/10.1080/0309877X.2011.645465
Natoli, R., Jackling, B., Kaider, F., & Clark, C. (2013). Mapping WIL activities in the curriculum to develop graduate capabilities: A case study in accounting. Asia- Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 14(2), 75–88.
Neiworth, L. L., Allan, S., D'Ambrosio, L., & Coplen-Abrahamson, M. (2014). Charting a course to competency: An approach to mapping public health core competencies to existing trainings. Health Promotion Practice, 15(Suppl. 1), 33S–38S. https://doi.org/10.1177/1524839913509274
Newcastle University (UK). (2010). Dynamic learning maps. https://learning-maps. ncl.ac.uk/
Oliver, B. (2013). Graduate attributes as a focus for institution wide curriculum renewal: Innovations and challenges. Higher Education Research and Development, 32(3), 450–463. https://doi.org/10.1080/07294360.2012.682052
Oliver, B., Ferns, S., Whelan, B., & Lilly, L. (2010, June 30–July 2). Mapping the curriculum for quality enhancement: Refining a tool and processes for the purpose of curriculum renewal. Paper presented at the Proceedings of Australian Universities Quality Forum (AuQF): Quality in uncertain times, Gold Coast, Australia. https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/11040562.pdf
Olmos, M., & Corrin, L. (2011). Academic analytics in a medical curriculum: Enabling educational excellence. Paper presented at the Australasian Society for Computers in Learning in Tertiary Education conference, Hobart, Australia. https://www.ascilite.org/conferences/hobart11/proceedings.php
Ozdemir, D., & Stebbins, C. (2015). Curriculum mapping for the utilization of a learning analytics system in an online competency-based master of health care administration program: A case study. The Journal of Health Administration Education, 32(4), 543–562.
Perlin, M. S. (2011). Curriculum mapping for program evaluation and CAHME accreditation. Journal of Health Administration Education, 28(1), 33–53.
Piotrowski, M. (2011, November 29–30). Overview of medical schools' adoption of curriculum mapping, management and delivery technologies. Paper presented at the 6th International Conference on e-Learning, Kelowna, British Colombia, Canada.
Plaza, C. M., Draugalis, J. R., Slack, M. K., Skrepnek, G. H., & Sauer, K. A. (2007). Curriculum mapping in program assessment and evaluation. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 71(2). https://www.ajpe.org/doi/full/10.5688/aj710220
Prince, N. J., Ross, J. G., Fertleman, C. R., & Watson, M. (2011). "Signpost": An innovative online solution to mapping resources to curriculum competences. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 96(Suppl. 1), A24. https://doi.org/10.1136/adc.2011.212563.48
Quirk, M. (2016). The Curriculum Positioning System (CPS): A dynamic, interactive approach to curriculum mapping [Webinar]. Association of Medical Education in Europe (AMEE). https://ameelive.adobeconnect.com/p4jgok9fj90/?launcher=false&fcsContent=true&pbMode=normal.
Quirk, M., & Chumley, H. (2018). The adaptive medical curriculum: A model for continuous improvement. Medical Teacher, 40(8), 786–790. https://doi.org/10.1080/0142159X.2018.1484896
Quirk, M., & Harden, R. M. (2017). Curriculum planning and development. In J. Dent, R. M. Harden, & D. Hunt (Eds.), A practical guide for medical teachers (pp.4–12). Elsevier.
Robley, W., Whittle, S., & Murdoch-Eaton, D. (2005). Mapping generic skills curricula: A recommended methodology. Journal of Further and Higher Education, 29(3), 221–231. https://doi.org/10.1080/03098770500166801
Romkey, L., & Bradbury, L. (2007, June 24–27). Student curriculum mapping: A more authentic way of examining and evaluating curriculum. Paper presented at the American Society for Engineering Education Annual Conference & Exposition, Honolulu, HI, USA. https://peer.asee.org/student-curriculum-mapping-a-moreauthentic-way-of-examining-and-evaluating-curriculum
Salas, A. A., Anderson, M. B., LaCourse, L., Allen, R., Candler, C. S., Cameron, T., & Lafferty, D. (2003). CurrMIT: A tool for managing medical school curricula. Academic Medicine, 78(3), 275–279.
Sarkisian, G. V., & Taylor, S. (2013). A learning journey I: Curriculum mapping as a tool to assess and integrate community psychology practice competencies in graduate education programs. Global Journal of Community Psychology Practice, 4(4). https://www.gjcpp.org/en/index.php?issue=16
Spencer, D., Riddle, M., & Knewstubb, B. (2012). Curriculum mapping to embed graduate capabilities. Higher Education Research and Development, 31(2), 217–231. https://doi.org/10.1080/07294360.2011.554387
Spickard, A., & Denny, J. C. (c 2014–2018). KnowledgeMap: Comprehensive curriculum content management and mapping system for medical education. https://cttc.co/technologies/knowledgemap-comprehensive-curriculum-contentmanagement-and-mapping-system-medical-education
Spreckelsen, C., Finsterer, S., Cremer, J., & Schenkat, H. (2013). Can social semantic web techniques foster collaborative curriculum mapping in medicine? Journal of Medical Internet Research, 15(8), e169. https://doi.org/10.2196/jmir.2623
Steketee, C. (2015). Prudentia: A medical school’s solution to curriculum mapping and curriculum management. Journal of University Teaching & Learning Practice, 12(4). https://ro.uow.edu.au/jutlp/vol12/iss4/9
Stoddard, H. A., & Brownfield, E. D. (2018). Creation and implementation of a taxonomy for educational activities: A common vocabulary to guide curriculum mapping. Academic Medicine, 93(19), 1486–1490. https://doi.org/10.1097/ACM.0000000000002187
Sumsion, J., & Goodfellow, J. (2004). Identifying generic skills through curriculum mapping: A critical evaluation. Higher Education Research & Development, 23(3), 329–346. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/0729436042000235436
Talbot, L., James, E. L., Verrinder, G., & Jackson, P. (2007). Curriculum development, accreditation and quality assurance in university environmental health education. Environmental Health, 7(1), 35–46.
Taleff, J., Salstrom, J., & Newton, E. R. (2009). Pioneering a universal curriculum: A look at six disciplines involved in women's health care. Journal of Midwifery and Women's Health, 54(4), 306–313. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmwh.2009.03.012
Tariq, V. N., Scott, E. M., Cochrane, A. C., Lee, M., & Ryles, L. (2004). Auditing and mapping key skills within university curricula. Quality Assurance in Education, 12(2), 70–81. https://doi.org/10.1108/09684880410536440
Uchiyama, K. P., & Radin, J. L. (2009). Curriculum mapping in higher education: A vehicle for collaboration. Innovative Higher Education, 33(4), 271–280. https:// doi.org/10.1007/s10755-008-9078-8
van den Heuvel, M., Martimianakis, M. A., Levy, R., Atkinson, A., Ford-Jones, E., & Shouldice, M. (2017). Social pediatrics: Weaving horizontal and vertical threads through pediatric residency. BMC Medical Education, 17(1), 12. https://doi. org/10.1186/s12909-016-0845-4
Wang, C. L. (2015). Mapping or tracing? Rethinking curriculum mapping in higher education. Studies in Higher Education, 40(9), 1550–1559. https://doi.org/10.108 0/03075079.2014.899343
Watson, E. G. S. (2013). A triangulated, mixed-method investigation of an online curriculum mapping system in medical education [Doctoral dissertation, The University of New South Wales (UNSW)]. Australian Institute of Health Innovation, Faculty of Medicine, UNSW Library. https://www.unsworks.unsw. edu.au/permalink/f/a5fmj0/unsworks_11602
Watson, E. G. S., Moloney, P. J., Toohey, S. M., Hughes, C. S., Mobbs, S. L., Leeper, J. B., & McNeil, H. P. (2007). Development of eMed: A comprehensive, modular curriculum-management system. Academic Medicine, 82(4), 351–360. https://doi. org/10.1097/acm.0b013e3180334d41
Wijngaards-de Meij, L., & Merx, S. (2018). Improving curriculum alignment and achieving learning goals by making the curriculum visible. International Journal for Academic Development, 23(3), 219–231. https://doi.org/10.1080/136014 4X.2018.1462187
Willett, T. G. (2008). Current status of curriculum mapping in Canada and the UK. Medical Education, 42(8), 786–793. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365- 2923.2008.03093.x
Willett, T. G., Marshall, K. C., Broudo, M., & Clarke, M. (2008). It's about TIME: A general-purpose taxonomy of subjects in medical education. Medical Education, 42(4), 432–438. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2923.2008.03012.x
Wong, R. Y., & Roberts, J. M. (2007). Real time curriculum map for internal medicine residency. BMC Medical Education, 7(42). https://doi. org/10.1186/1472-6920-7-42
Zelenitsky, S., Vercaigne, L., Davies, N. M., Davis, C., Renaud, R., & Kristjanson, C. (2014). Using curriculum mapping to engage faculty members in the analysis of a pharmacy program. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 78(7). https:// doi.org/10.5688/ajpe787139
How to Cite
On acceptance for publication in FoHPE the copyright of the manuscript is signed over to ANZAHPE, the publisher of FoHPE.