Peer mentoring for clinical educators: A case study in physiotherapy
Introduction: Providing placements for students within clinical and community contexts is an essential part of training future healthcare professionals. Placements enable students to understand and apply their theoretical knowledge in practice. Placement experiences are provided by clinical educators, who are qualified health professionals with little-to-no formal education in teaching. This paper is focused on a specific initiative for supporting these educators, a mentoring program for physiotherapy clinical educators.
Methods: The program design was research-informed and participant-led, an uncommon approach to initiatives in this context. The 10-month mentoring program included formal and informal meetings, either in person or online; face-to-face workshops; and case-based discussions. To evaluate the program, participating educators were surveyed during and at the conclusion of the program. After each placement, students were surveyed about their learning experience.
Results: The program resulted in better clinical placement experiences for educators and students. Students of educators who participated in the program felt that their educator spent more time with them, and they were more satisfied with the delivery, content and amount of feedback received from their educator. Clinical educators in the program reported that mentoring enhanced their ability to support learning and reflect on their role as teachers.
Conclusions: The importance of clinical education in the student learning experience provides an argument for supporting educators. This paper presents evidence that peer mentoring is a viable support strategy that demonstrates positive outcomes for educators and their students.
Baldry-Currens, J. A., & Bithell, C. P. (2000). Clinical education: Listening to different perspectives. Physiotherapy, 86(12), 645–653.
Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York, NY: Freeman.
Buccieri, K. M., Schultze, K., Dungey, J., Kolodziej, T., Malta, S., Marocco, S.,
. . . Stolove, R. (2006). Self-reported characteristics of physical therapy clinical instructors: A comparison to the American Physical Therapy Association’s guidelines and self-assessments for clinical education. Journal of Physical Therapy Education, 20(1), 47–55.
Buchanan, J., Jenkins, S., & Scott, L. (2014) Student clinical education in Australia: A University of Sydney scoping study. Sydney, Australia: The University of Sydney.
Cangelosi, P. A., Crocker, S., & Sorrell, J. M. (2009). Expert to novice: Clinicians learning new roles as clinical nurse educators. Nursing Education Perspectives, 30(6), 367–371.
Clynes, M. P., & Raftery, S. E. C. (2008). Feedback: An essential element of student learning in clinical practice. Nurse Education in Practice, 8(6), 405–411.
Cross, V. (1995). Perceptions of the ideal clinical educator in physiotherapy education. Physiotherapy, 81(9), 506–513. doi:10.1016/S0031-9406(05)66680-1
Cutcliffe, J. R., & Proctor, B. (1998). An alternative training approach in clinical supervision: 1. British Journal of Nursing, 7(5), 280–285.
Edgar, S., & Connaughton, J. (2014). Exploring the role and skillset of physiotherapy clinical educators in work-integrated learning. Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 15(1), 29–36.
Ewing, R., Freeman, M., Barrie, S., Bell, A., O’Connor, D., Waugh, F., & Sykes, C. (2008). Building a community in academic settings: The importance of flexibility in a structured mentoring system. Mentoring & Tutoring: Partnership in Learning, 16(3), 294–310.
Ezzat, A. M., & Maly, M. R. (2012). Building passion develops meaningful mentoring relationships among Canadian physiotherapists. Physiotherapy Canada, 64(1), 77–85. doi:10.3138/ptc.2011-07
Gardner, S. S. (2014). From learning to teach to teaching effectiveness: Nurse educators describe their experiences. Nursing Education Perspectives, 35(2), 106–111.
Greenfield, B. H., Bridges, P. H., Phillips, T. A., Drill, A. N., Gaydosik, C. D., Krishnan, A., & Yandziak, H. J. (2014). Exploring the experiences of novice clinical instructors in physical therapy clinical education: A phenomenological study. Physiotherapy, 100, 349–355.
Hall, K. M., Draper, R. J., Smith, L. K., & Bullough, R. V. (2008). More than a place to teach: Exploring the perceptions of the roles and responsibilities of mentor teachers. Mentoring & Tutoring: Partnership in Learning, 16(3), 328–345.
Hesketh, E. A., Bagnall, G., Buckley, E. G., Friedman, M., Goodall, E., Harden, R. M., . . . Oughton, R. (2001). A framework for developing excellence as a clinical educator. Medical Education, 35, 555–564.
Higgins, R., Hartley, P., & Skelton, A. (2002). The conscientious consumer: Reconsidering the role of assessment feedback in student learning. Studies in Higher Education, 27(1), 53–64. doi:10.1080/03075070120099368
Higgs, J., & McAllister, L. (2007). Educating clinical educators: Using a model of the experience of being a clinical educator. Medical Teacher, 29, e51–e57. doi:10.1080/01421590601046088
Iedema, R. A., Long, D., & Carroll, K. E. (2010). Corridor communication, spatial design and patient safety: Enacting and managing complexities. In A. van Marrewijk & D. Yanow (Eds.), Organizational spaces (pp. 41–57). Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar.
Kilminster, S., Jolly, B., & van der Vleuten, C. (2002). A framework for effective training for supervisors. Medical Teacher, 24(4), 385–389. doi:10.1080/0142159021000000834
Long, J. (1997). The dark side of mentoring. The Australian Educational Researcher, 24(2), 115–133.
Manias, E., & Aitken, R. (2005). Clinical teachers in specialty practice settings: Perceptions of their role within postgraduate nursing programs. Learning in Health and Social Care, 4(2), 67–77.
Moles, R., Roberts, A. S., Diamandis, S., Bell, S. J., & Nichols, C. (2007). Young pharmacists as mentors to pharmacy students: Partnerships for the future of the profession. Journal of Pharmacy Practice and Research, 37(4), 266–270.
McCallum, C., Mosher, P., Jacobson, P., Gallivan, S., & Giuffre, S. (2013). Quality in physical therapy clinical education: A systematic review. Physical Therapy, 93(10), 1298–1311. doi:10.2522/ptj.20120410
McKenna, L., Wray, N., & McCall, L. (2009). Exploring continuous clinical placement for undergraduate students. Advances in Health Sciences Education, 14(3), 327–335.
Neary, M. (2000). Teaching, assessing and evaluation for clinical competence: A practical guide for practitioners and teachers. Cheltenham, UK: Nelson Thornes.
Newberry, J. (2007). Indicators of practice education quality in health care organizations: A literature review. Vancouver, BC, Canada: Practice Education Initiative. Retrieved from http://www.hspcanada.net/docs/quality_indicators/quality_indicators.pdf
Nguyen, M., Thomson, K., & Leithhead, I. (2010). Developing a mentoring program for physiotherapy clinical educators. Synergy, 30, 16–21.
Recker-Hughes, C., Brooks, G., Mowder-Tinney, J. J., & Pivko, S. (2010). Clinical instructors’ perspectives on professional development opportunities: Availability, preferences, barriers, and supports. Journal of Physical Therapy Education, 24(2), 19–25.
Rodger, S., Fitzgerald, C., Davila, W., Millar, F., & Allison, H. (2011). What makes a quality occupational therapy practice placement? Students’ and practice educators’ perspectives. Australian Occupational Therapy Journal, 58(3), 195–202.
Saarikoski, M., Leino-Kilpi, H., & Warne, T. (2002). Clinical learning environment and supervision: Testing a research instrument in an international comparative study. Nurse Education Today, 22(4), 340–349. doi:10.1054/nedt.2001.0715
Siggins Miller Consultants. (2012). Promoting quality in clinical placements: Literature review and national stakeholder consultation. Adelaide, Australia: Health Workforce Australia.
Steinert, Y. (2012). Faculty development: On becoming a medical educator. Medical Teacher, 34, 74–76.
Walker, E. M., & Openshaw, S. (1994). Educational needs as perceived by clinical supervisors. Physiotherapy, 80(7), 424–431.
Waring, J. J., & Bishop, S. (2010). “Water cooler” learning: Knowledge sharing at the clinical “backstage” and its contribution to patient safety. Journal of Health Organization and Management, 24(4), 325–342. doi:10.1108/14777261011064968
Warren, A. L., & Denham, S. A. (2010). Relationships between formalized preceptor orientation and student outcomes. Teaching & Learning in Nursing, 5(1), 4–11. doi:10.1016/j.teln.2009.02.003
- There are currently no refbacks.