Reconceptualising faculty development for the future
Keywords:faculty development, situativity theory, learning through work
Faculty development (FD) helps to build educational expertise and capacity among those involved in health professional education (HPE). Informal FD encompasses the learning that health professionals, educators and researchers do outside of formal structures and includes learning through everyday work. This paper reframes learning through work using situativity theory and presents three principles for optimising it: cultivating a learning mindset, leveraging social conditions for learning and (re-)negotiating a social contract.
Based on this theorisation, we propose the term embedded FD in acknowledgement that learning through work arises in the complex interactions between individuals, groups and their environments. Implications of this reframing include shifting the focus onto helping individuals, groups and organisations develop effectivities to navigate social structures and systems for the purpose of learning, and redefining what success might look like. This reconceptualisation can help health professionals, educators, researchers and organisations optimise embedded FD to meet the educational opportunities and challenges of the next 50 years.
Billett, S. (2001). Learning through work: Workplace affordances and individual engagement. Workplace Learning, 13(5), 209–214. https://doi.org/10.1108/EUM0000000005548
Buckley, H., & Nimmon, L. (2020). Learning in faculty development: The role of social networks. Academic Medicine, 95(11S), S20–S27. https://doi.org/10.1097/ACM.0000000000003627
Campbell, N., Wozniak, H., Philip, R. L., & Damarell, R. A. (2019). Peer‐supported faculty development and workplace teaching: An integrative review. Medical Education, 53(10), 978–988. https://doi.org/10.1111/medu.13896
Cantillon, P., De Grave, W., & Dornan, T. (2021). Uncovering the ecology of clinical education: A dramaturgical study of informal learning in clinical teams. Advances in Health Sciences Education, 26(2), 417–435. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10459-020-09993-8
Clement, T., Bolton, J., Griffiths, L., Cracknell, C., & Molloy, E. (2023). “Noticing” in health professions education: Time to pay attention? Medical Education, 57(4), 305–314. https://doi.org/10.1111/medu.14978
D'Eon, M., Overgaard, V., & Harding, S. R. (2000). Teaching as a social practice: Implications for faculty development. Advances in Health Sciences Education, 5(2), 151–162. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1009898031033
de Carvalho-Filho, M. A., Tio, R. A., & Steinert, Y. (2018). Twelve tips for implementing a community of practice for faculty development. Medical Teacher, 42(2), 143–149. https://doi.org/10.1080/0142159X.2018.1552782
Deiorio, N. M., Carney, P. A., Kahl, L. E., Bonura, E. M., & Juve, A. M. (2016). Coaching: A new model for academic and career achievement. Medical Education Online, 21(1), Article 33480. https://doi.org/10.3402/meo.v21.33480
Durning, S. J., & Artino, A. R. (2011). Situativity theory: A perspective on how participants and the environment can interact: AMEE Guide No. 52. Medical Teacher, 33(3), 188–199. https://doi.org/10.3109/0142159X.2011.550965
Durning, S., Artino, A. R., Jr., Pangaro, L., van der Vleuten, C. P., & Schuwirth, L. (2011). Context and clinical reasoning: Understanding the perspective of the expert’s voice. Medical Education, 45(9), 927–938. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2923.2011.04053.x
Dweck, C. S. (2000). Self-theories: Their role in motivation, personality, and development. Psychology Press. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315783048
Irby, D. M., & O'Sullivan, P. S. (2018). Developing and rewarding teachers as educators and scholars: Remarkable progress and daunting challenges. Medical Education, 52(1), 58–67. https://doi.org/10.1111/medu.13379
Kennewell, S. (2001). Using affordances and constraints to evaluate the use of information and communications technology in teaching and learning. Journal of Information Technology for Teacher Education, 10(1–2), 101–116. https://doi.org/10.1080/14759390100200105
King, S. M., Richards, J., Murray, A.-M., Ryan, V. J., Seymour-Walsh, A., Campbell, N., & Kumar, K. (2021). Informal faculty development in health professions education: Identifying opportunities in everyday practice. Medical Teacher, 43(8), 874–878. https://doi.org/10.1080/0142159X.2021.1931080
Kumar, K., King, S., & Seymour-Walsh, A. (2021). Conceptual thresholds in health professional education research and scholarship. Focus on Health Professional Education, 22(2), 72–84. https://doi.org/10.11157/fohpe.v22i2.445
Li, S. A., Jeffs, L., Barwick, M., & Stevens, B. (2018). Organizational contextual features that influence the implementation of evidence-based practices across healthcare settings: A systematic integrative review. Systematic Reviews, 7, Article 72. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13643-018-0734-5
Michaels, C. F. (2003). Affordances: Four points of debate. Ecological Psychology, 15(2), 135–148. https://doi.org/10.1207/S15326969ECO1502_3
Morris, C., & Swanwick, T. (2018). From the workshop to the workplace: Relocating faculty development in postgraduate medical education. Medical Teacher, 40(6), 622–626. https://doi.org/10.1080/0142159X.2018.1444269
O'Sullivan, P. S., & Irby, D. M. (2011). Reframing research on faculty development. Academic Medicine, 86(4), 421–428. https://doi.org/10.1097/ACM.0b013e31820dc058
Sanger, M., & Giddings, M. M. (2012). A simple approach to complexity theory. Journal of Social Work Education, 48(2), 369–376. https://doi.org/10.5175/JSWE.2012.201000025
Scott, K. M., Baur, L., & Barrett, J. (2017). Evidence-based principles for using technology-enhanced learning in the continuing professional development of health professionals. Journal of Continuing Education in the Health Professions, 37(1), 61–66. https://doi.org/10.1097/CEH.0000000000000146
Steinert, Y. (2014). Faculty development in the health professions: A focus on research and practice. Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-7612-8
Steinert, Y. (2020). Faculty development: From rubies to oak. Medical Teacher, 42(4), 429–435. https://doi.org/10.1080/0142159X.2019.1688769
Steinert, Y., Basi, M., & Nugus, P. (2017). How physicians teach in the clinical setting: The embedded roles of teaching and clinical care. Medical Teacher, 39(12), 1238–1244. https://doi.org/10.1080/0142159X.2017.1360473
Steinert, Y., Mann, K., Anderson, B., Barnett, B. M., Centeno, A., Naismith, L., Prideaux, D., Spencer, J., Tullo, E., & Viggiano, T. (2016). A systematic review of faculty development initiatives designed to enhance teaching effectiveness: A 10-year update: BEME Guide No. 40. Medical Teacher, 38(8), 769–786. https://doi.org/10.1080/0142159X.2016.1181851
Torre, D., & Durning, S. J. (2015). Social cognitive theory: Thinking and learning in social settings. In J. Cleland & S. Durning (Eds.), Researching medical education (pp. 105–116). John Wiley & Sons.
Wenger, E. (1999). Communities of practice: Learning, meaning, and identity. Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511803932
Woodruff, J. N. (2019). Accounting for complexity in medical education: A model of adaptive behaviour in medicine. Medical Education, 53(9), 861–873. https://doi.org/10.1111/medu.13905
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2023 Focus on Health Professional Education: A Multi-Professional Journal
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
On acceptance for publication in FoHPE the copyright of the manuscript is signed over to ANZAHPE, the publisher of FoHPE.